Civil Servants in Upper Canada

Official List of Officers of the Provincial Government in 1825

Source: Kingston Chronicle, May 20, 1825

Name Appointment Salary Fees
pounds/shillings pounds/shillings
Addison, R., Rev. Chaplain n/a 50
Baby, James Executive Councillor 100 111/2
Baby, James Inspector General 863 405/11
Bailey, Ann Housekeeper n/a 46/5
Beckie, John Principal Clerk 182/10 202/15
Boulton, D'Arcy 2nd Probate Court Judge 750 833/6
Boulton, D'Arcy Master in Chancery n/a 50
Boulton, H.J. Solicitor General 100 111/2
Bridgeland, J. Keeper, Court of King's Bench n/a 0/10
Cameron, D. Secretary and Registrar 300 338/6
Campbell, W. 1st Probate Court Judge 750 833/6
Carfrae, Hugh Door Keeper
Ex. Council
n/a 22/4
Carfrae, Hugh Door Keeper
House of Assembly
n/a 20
Chewett, W. Draftsman & 1st Clerk
Surveyor Gen'ls Office
182/10 202/15
Chewett, J.G. Assistant Draftsman,
Surveyor Gen'ls Office
135 150
Claus, W. Executive Councillor 100 111/2
Coffin, Colonel Adjutant General
n/a 365
Dunn, John H. Receiver General for U.C. 200 222/4
Fitzgerald, Thomas 2nd Chief Clerk 150 166/13
Fitzgibbon, Lt-Col. Assist. Adj. General
n/a 200
Fothergill, C. Government Printer n/a Av. 200
Hamilton, George 1st Clerk 182/10 202/15
Heward, S. Auditor of Land Patents n/a Av. 110/0
Hunter, John Crier, Court of King's Bench n/a 0/10
Hunter, John Messenger n/a 20
Jarvis, W.B. Clerk n/a 166/13
Jarvis, Samuel Peters Clerk
Court of Chancery
n/a 50
Knott, William Door Keeper n/a 20
Lee, William 3rd Principal Clerk 112/10 125
Lee, William Black Rod n/a 50
Lyons, John 3rd Chief Clerk 150 166/13
Macaulay, W., Rev. Gov't Chaplain n/a 50
Martins, Joseph Messenger n/a 20/8
Martins, Joseph Office Servant n/a 50/5/9
McMahon, E. Chief Clerk 182/10 202/15
McMahon, E. Agent
Militia Office
n/a 100
McNabb, Allan Sergeant at Arms n/a 50
Merritt, Thomas Surveyor of Woods n/a Av. 10/0
Powell, W.D. Chief Justice of U.C. 1100 1223/4/5
Powell, W.D. Chairman of Executive Council 100 111/2
Powell, W.D. Speaker
Leg. Council
n/a 400
Powell, John Clerk
Leg. Council
n/a 200
Powell, John Naval Office 100 111/2
Powell, G. Principal
Probate Court
n/a Av. 12/10
Powell, Grant Clerk
House of Assembly
n/a 200
Prentice, R.W. 2nd Clerk 150 166/13
Radenherst, John Extra Clerk 135 150
Ridout, Thomas Surveyor General 300 333/6
Ridout, S. Draftsman & 2nd Clerk
Surveyor Gen'ls Office
182/10 202/15
Robinson, John Beverley Attorney General 800 333/6
Savage, George 2nd Principal Clerk 150 166/13
Scarlet, John 1st Clerk,
Inspec. Gen'l Office
182/10 202/15
Small, John Clerk of Crown 100 111/2
Small, John Clerk of the Executive Council 200 222/4
Smith, Samuel Executive Councillor 100 111/2
Spragge, Joseph 3rd Extra Clerk 112/10 125
Strachan Executive Councillor 100 111/2
Turquand, B. 2nd Extra Clerk 112/10 125
Warffe, A. 2nd Clerk
Inspec. Gen'l Office
150 166/13

ADDISON, Robert (Rev.) 1754-1829 Church of England Missionary, sent to Canada by Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG). Only the third Church of England Clergyman to be permanently settled in the colony (after Stuart and Langhorn). His income from the SPG fell much short of his family's needs and government appointments such as this were a means by which the colonial government could subsidize his activities. Recognized as the most educated scholar in Upper Canada by his peers, Addison collaborated with his friend, Strachan, on the report which would eventually lead to the Common Schools Act.

BABY, James 1763-1833 A Roman Catholic of French descent, James Baby was in his day considered the epitome of a gentleman, good-looking, courteous and polished. The DCB says that, between 1792 and his death, he received 115 separate appointments. Combined with good business sense, these patronage appointments made Baby a wealthy man, but he also had a reputation for attending to his various offices with diligence, earning respect particularly as some appointments required considerable diplomacy.

BOULTON, D'Arcy 1759-1834 Born in England, to minor aristocracy, D'Arcy Boulton was singled out by William Lyon Mackenzie as a typical member of the ruling oligarchy, or "Family Compact", due to his continual quest for appointments for himself and his sons.

BOULTON, Henry John 1790-1870 Son of D'Arcy Boulton, born in England but educated in Canada by John Strachan. A challenging and complex individual, H.J. Boulton made an enemy of William Lyon Mackenzie and the Reformers by supporting Mackenzie's expulsion from the Legislature. However, he did not fit well with the Tories either, due to his continual support for unconventional ideas.

CAMPBELL, William (Sir) 1758-1834 Born in Scotland, Campbell began his Canadian legal career in the Maritimes, where things did not go well. He relocated to Upper Canada and was more successful.

CHEWETT, William 1753-1849 Born in England and graduated in engineering from East India Company College in London. Came to Quebec in 1771 and had a long career in Canada. He held various posts in the Surveyor General's Office of Upper Canada, but was frustrated in his ambition to be appointed Surveyor General himself. As well as being an able surveyor, Chewett was a skilled draftsman and cartographer. He drew architectural elevations for prominent clients. Chewett made a solid contribution to the growth of Upper Canada.

CHEWETT, James Grant 1793-1862 Son of William Chewett. Born in Canada and educated under John Strachan with many of the Upper Canadian elite. Surveyor, architect and Justice of the Peace, J.G. Chewett later also made a name for himself in financial circles, becoming a member of the Board of the Bank of Upper Canada.

CLAUS, William, 1765-1826 Grandson of Sir William Johnson and had both white and native ancestry. Born into a family of wealth and prominence. William Claus held a number of appointments but is best known for the part he played in negotiations with native people.

COFFIN, Nathaniel 1766-1846 Born in Boston, Coffin was a member of a very military family. He had a long association with the militia, reaching the rank of Colonel in 1820. However, his battlefield experience was brief and his role was mostly administration.

DUNN, John Henry 1792-1854 English administrator, a member of a prominent family, Dunn received the appointment of Receiver General in 1820 through his connections. Dunnís duties were financial, and involved the collection of government revenues, including those from crown lands and clergy reserves. For collections, he received a commission of 3-3.5% which raised his annual income to over 1000 pounds. He became well-to-do, although he liked to claim that he survived partly on the income of his wealthy wife. Although he seems to have been an honest official, Dunn resented the intrusion of colonial officials into the affairs of the Receiver General, believing that he answered only to the British government. This made his later professional life difficult. He died in London, England.

FITZGIBBON, James 1780(Ireland)-1863 Soldier and public servant, Fitzgibbon was a skillful peace-maker and is known for his diffusing of Irish violence at the work sites along the Rideau Canal, in 1824 and for his quelling of the riot at Mackenzie's print shop in 1832. He was, however, a man of action rather than academic credentials. William Lyon Mackenzie singled his appointments for criticism as an obvious example of Tory patronage.

FOTHERGILL, Charles 1782-1840 Born in England to a Quaker family, Fothergill was a man of great talant, an artist, scholar, naturalist, but early profligate years bankrupted him. In 1817, he emigrated to Canada and set up near Peterborough, but once again gradiose schemes beyond his purse ruined him. He moved to York and received the appointment of government printer, a post which he held from 1820 until 1826. He lost the appointment for political reasons after he became deeply involved with the legislative opposition. He later started and abandonned a political career, attempted to found a zoological museum and finally took up newspaper publishing.

HAMILTON, George - possibly George Hamilton of Hamilton, Ontario, 1788-1836

JARVIS, William Botsford 1799-1864 Educated under George Okill Stuart and John Strachan. Appointed Clerk in 1818, probably through his cousin, Samuel Peters Jarvis. Later contested three elections in Toronto and became a bitter enemy of William Lyon Mackenzie. In 1827, he received the appointment of Sheriff of the Home District. Jarvis was also a Toronto speculator and property developer. Rosedale is named for his home.

JARVIS, Samuel Peters 1792-1857 Although trained as a lawyer, Samuel Peters Jarvis had a temper and poor judgment which combined to limit his career. In 1817, a duel ruined chances of promotion. In 1826, he lead the rioters at Mackenzie's print shop. In later life, he was Chief Superintendant of Indian Affairs (1837-1845). The Indian Department shortly came under investigation due to his inability to follow good accounting practices. He was dismissed.

MACAULAY, William 1794-1874 Born in Canada. Educated under John Strachan and in England, took orders in Church of England. He served the SPG at Cobourg but is best known for his work at Hallowell (Picton). Macaulay was Chaplain to the Legislative Assembly from 1821 until 1835, succeding John Strachan. He was also heavily involved in management of the clergy reserves until they were abolished in 1854.

MERRITT, Thomas 1759(New York State) - 1842 A prominent United Empire Loyalist, Merritt considered himself a farmer but had little business acumen. He was a successful Sheriff of the Niagara District, 1803-1820, after which he tried to withdraw from public life. It was said that the violence of the War of 1812 had impacted him both financially and emotionally.

POWELL, William Dummer 1755 - 1834 Prominent jurist, politician and author. His insistence on the independence of the judiciary and strong political views brought him many enemies. In 1825, shortly after this list of civil servants was published, he was forced from the Executive Council. He remained a Legislative Councillor until his death, but was replaced as Speaker by William Campbell, who also succeeded him as Chief Justice in October of 1825. He was allowed a pension of a thousand pounds per annum. See the long biography in The Dictionary of Canadian Biography.

POWELL, Grant 1779-1838 Medical doctor. Third son of William Dummer Powell, and good friend of William Botsford Jarvis.

RADENHURST, John [Possibly a son of Thomas Radenhurst who came from Cheshire, England, to Lower Canada in 1776. If so, John Radenhurst was the son of United Empire Loyalist, Ann Campbell, and a relative of the Ridout family. Thomas Radenhurst died in 1805, and his widow Ann Radenhurst worked tirelessly to obtain appointments for her sons.]

RIDOUT, Thomas 1754-1829 Thomas Ridout was born in England, but began his career in the United States. On his way to Kentucky, he was captured by Indians and ended up in 1788 in Detroit, which was then held by the British. From there, he made his way to Canada where he built a successful career in the civil service. He entered the Surveyor General's office in 1793 and in 1810, after travelling to Britain to lobby for advancement, he was promoted to Surveryor General.

RIDOUT, Samuel Smith 1778-1855 Oldest son of Thomas Ridout.

ROBINSON, John Beverley (Sir) 1791-1863 Son of a United Empire Loyalist. Lawyer, politician, and judge. One of the longest-lived members of the Family Compact. See extensive article in Dictionary of Canadian Biography.

SMALL, John 1746-1831 John Small was made famous for his duel with John White in 1800, an event which probably damaged any chance he had of rising in the ranks of the civil service.

SMITH, Samuel [Probably Samuel Smith, born NY State, 1756, died 1826, Smith was a United Empire Loyalist, a veteran of the Queen's Rangers. He served twice as an interim Administrator. An able, if cautious civil servant, Smith is remembered for his hesitation to grant land to the tidal wave of American immigrants, which, coming so soon after the War of 1812, was a source of concern for the colonial government. He is also remembered for his clash with Robert Gourlay.]

SPRAGGE, Joseph [Probably Joseph Bitterman Spragg(e), the son of Joseph Spragg, the man championed by Strachan as head teacher for the Upper Canada Central School. Joseph Spragg Senior is known to have used his connections to get appointments for his sons.]

STRACHAN, John, D.D. 1778 (Scotland) - 1867 Church of England clergyman, politician and educator. One of the most influential people in Upper Canada. See extensive article in Dictionary of Canadian Biography

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